The challenge of detecting low-frequency gravitational waves.

The first direct GW detection by the two giant optical interferometers of Advanced LIGO in September 2015 opens a new area for physics: in the future, GW detectors will reveal new information about massive astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, black holes, pulsars and their dynamics. The transient signal of this first observation, a chirp in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz lasting about 150 ms with a peak strain amplitude of 10−21 , corresponds to the merging phase of a black hole binary system. Due to their bandwidth limited to the frequency range 10 Hz-10 kHz, only the last evolution phase of binary systems is observable with current GW detectors. Before their coalescence,the same sources emit at lower frequencies quasi-continuous GW signals in their “inspiral” phase. A new class of low frequency detectors would enable to observe the signal of such sources years before they enter in the bandwidth of ground-based optical detectors. For example, this first observed source, GW150914, was emitting at a frequency of 16 mHz 5 years before coalescence with a characteristic strain amplitude of the order of 10−20. Low frequency GW detectors would therefore open the possibility of multi-band GW astronomy with long term observation of all evolution phases of binary systems.
Such observatories would also enable to precisely predict the event of coalescence in time and space, which would ease coincident observations in the electromagnetic domain. Multi-band GW astronomy then offers a great scientific payoff with the perspective of multi-messenger astronomy, but also promises new gravity and cosmology tests. Low frequency detectors would therefore open a completely new area for GW astronomy.

What will MIGA change for geosciences ?

MIGA will extend the concept of correlated interferometry from the laboratory scale to that of a geological site, the LSBB at Rustrel, using an underground array of atom sensors distributed along a 200 m horizontal arm. Several techniques based on correlated atom interferometry will be implemented to characterize the gravitational field of the site, such as the simultaneous measurement of gravity acceleration and gradient and the measurement of gravitational curvature. It will be thus possible to investigate several geological phenomena, like the non-invasive detection of underground density anomalies, the gravity perturbations due to local density changes caused by fault evolution as proposed in, and the characterization of gravity-gradient noise, also called Newtonian Noise (NN).

Patents

  1. « Système et procédé d’interféromètre atomique à cavité optique résonnante », B. Canuel, A. Bertoldi, I. Riou, P. Bouyer, R. Geiger, N. Mielec, déposé le 26-07-16 sous le numéro 1657183, Demandeurs: Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Bordeaux, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire de Paris.
  2. « Installation optique sous vide et procédé d’obtention d’une installation optique sous vide », B. Canuel, A. Landragin, déposé le 04-05-16 sous le numéro 1654064, Demandeurs: Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Bordeaux, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire de Paris.

Research papers

  1. « Exploring gravity with the MIGA large scale atom interferometer, » B. Canuel, A. Bertoldi, L. Amand, E. Borgo di Pozzo, R. Geiger, J. Gillot, S. Henry, J. Hinderer, D. Holleville, G. Lefèvre, M. Merzougui, N. Mielec, T. Monfret, S. Pelisson, M. Prevedelli, I. Riou, Y. Rogister, S. Rosat, E. Cormier, A. Landragin, W. Chaibi, S. Gaffet, P. Bouyer, (2017) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32165-z
  2. « A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,» I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50 155002 (2017), http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075/50/15/155002
  3. « Progress on Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Multi-Antenna radar imaging for MIGA », M.Yedlin, J-Y Dauvignac, N. Fortino, C. Pichot, R. Cova, D. Henley, K. Hall and S. Gaffet, Proceedings of i-DUST 2016, E3S Web of Conferences 12, 06003 (2016), DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20161201001
  4. « First analyses of the iOSG-type superconducting gravimeter at the low noise underground laboratory (LSBB URL) of Rustrel, France », Rosat, S., Hinderer, J., Boy, J.-P., Littel, F., Boyer, D., Bernard, J.-D., Rogister, Y., Mémin, A., & Gaffet, S., Proceedings of i-DUST 2016, E3S Web of Conferences 12, 06003 (2016) DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20161206003
  5. « MIGA: combining laser and matter wave interferometry for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy », B. Canuel, S. Pelisson, L. Amand, A. Bertoldi, E. Cormier, B. Fang, S. Gaffet, R. Geiger, J. Harms, D. Holleville, A. Landragin, G. Lefèvre, J. Lhermite, N. Mielec, M. Prevedelli, I. Riou, and P Bouyer, Proceedings of SPIE 9900, Quantum Optics, 990008 (2016), DOI 0.1117/12.2228825
  6. « Low frequency gravitational wave detection with ground-based atom interferometer arrays » W. Chaibi, R. Geiger, B. Canuel, A. Bertoldi, A. Landragin, and P. Bouyer, Phys. Rev. D 93, 021101(R) –(2016) , DOI 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.021101
  7. « Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA): New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences », R. Geiger, L. Amand, A. Bertoldi, B. Canuel, W. Chaibi, C. Danquigny, I. Dutta, B. Fang, S. Gaffet, J. Gillot, D. Holleville, A. Landragin, M. Merzougui, I.Riou, D. Savoie, P. Bouyer, Proceedings of the 50th Rencontres de Moriond 100 years after GR, LaThuile (Italy), 21-28 March 2015, DOI 10.1051/e3sconf/20140401004
  8. « The matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA): New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences », B. Canuel, L. Amand, A. Bertoldi, W. Chaibi, R. Geiger, J. Gillot, A. Landragin, M. Merzougui, I. Riou, S. P. Schmid, and P. Bouyer, Proceedings of i-DUST 2014, E3S Web of Conferences 4, 01004 (2014), DOI 10.1051/e3sconf/20140401004
  9. « Mobile and Remote Inertial Sensing with Atom Interferometers », B. Barrett, P.-A. Gominet, E. Cantin, L. Antoni-Micollier, A. Bertoldi, B. Battelier, P. Bouyer, J. Lautier, A. Landragin in “Atom Interferometry”, G. M. Tino and M. A. Kasevich, eds., Proceedings of the International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”, Volume 188, pp. 493-555 (2014), DOI 10.3254/978-1-61499-448-0-493

Talks & posters

  1. MIGA and Atom Interferometry for Gravitational Wave detection at low frequency”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, ICFO, Barcelone, 7 September 2018.
  2. Atom Interferometers and GW detection”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, 3 hours lecture at “Gravitational Waves 2018”, Physics School in Les Houches (France), July 25-26, 2018.
  3. MIGA and Atom Interferometry for GravitationalWave Detection”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, 15th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, University Roma “La Sapienza” (Roma–Italy), July 3, 2018.
  4. Large scale atom interferometry with the MIGA gravity antenna,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, Conference i-DUST 2018, Avignon, France, June 2018
  5. High precision test of gravity with the MIGA large scale atom interferometer,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, EFTF European Frequency and Time Forum 2018, Torino, Italy, April 2018.
  6. Atomic physics and Gravitational Wave detection”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, AtomQT workshop, Heraklion (Crete-Greece), April 18, 2018.
  7. MIGA and Gravitational Wave detection with atom interferometry at low frequency”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 13 February 2018.
  8. MIGA PHYS: New tools for MIGA and future long baseline atom interferometers,” B. Canuel et al., “5 ème édition du Symposium LAPHIA”, Bordeaux, France, Dec. 2017.
  9. Multiband GW astronomy coupling atomic and optical interferometers”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, AEI (Albert Einstein Institute) Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover, Germany, 9 November 2017.
  10. MIGA and GW detection with atom interferometry at low frequency”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham, UK, 3 October 2017.
  11. “Low Frequency Gravitational Wave Detection with Ground Based Atom Interferometer Arrays”, B. Fang, Meeting of International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) 2017, Sèvres (France), July 2017.
  12. Exploring gravity with the MIGA large scale atom interferometer”, B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, “24ème congrès général de la Société Française de Physique”, Orsay, France, July 2017.
  13. “A large mode optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry”, N. Mielec, CLEO Europe, EQEC, June 2017.
  14. New perspective for high precision gravity measurement with the MIGA antenna,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, “Journées 2015 du Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit”, Avignon, France, June 2017.
  15. The MIGA antenna: new perspectives for high precision gravity measurements”, B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, “Assemblée générale Labex First-TF”, Talence, France, June 2017.
  16. Matter wave interferometry for GW detection”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, GWPAW 2017, Annecy (France), May 30-June 2, 2017.
  17. MIGA gravity gradiometer for infrasound GW detection”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, LAPP, Annecy, France, 30 May 2017.
  18. “MIGA: un réseau de gravimètres quantiques souterrain,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, talk the “Séminaire gravimètres à atomes froids”, IGN, Versailles, France, Feb. 2017.
  19. Low Frequency Gravitational Wave Detection with Ground Based Atom Interferometer Arrays”, R. Geiger, Experimental Quantum Optics and Photonics, University of Strathclyde, October 26th 2016.
  20. Understanding fluctuations of the earth gravity field for future gravitational wave detectors,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, talk at The Frontier of Matter Wave Optics conference FOMO 2016, Arcachon, France, Sept. 2016.
  21. Understanding fluctuations of the earth gravity field for future gravitational wave detectors,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, talk at The inter-Disciplinary Underground Science and Technology Conference i-DUST 2016, Avignon, France, June 2016.
  22. MIGA and very long baseline atom interferometry at LSBB”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, iDUST, Rustrel, June 1-3, 2016.
  23. MIGA: Combining laser and matter wave interferometry for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, Talk at SPIE Photonics Europe conference, Brussels, Belgium, Apr. 2016.
  24. Low Frequency Gravitational Wave Detection with Ground Based Atom Interferometer Arrays”, R. Geiger, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna Center for quantum science and technology, April 29th, 2016.
  25. Benefits and challenges of high sensitivity atom interferometry in optical cavities”, N. Mielec, Les Houches, 24th-29th January 2016, workshop “Continuous atomic sources and extreme cooling of atoms and molecules: techniques and applications”
  26. The MIGA experiment, towards new Gravitational Wave detectors using Atom Interferometry,” B. Canuel for the MIGA Consortium, Seminar at Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, Toulouse, France, Jan. 2016.
  27. Low Frequency Gravitational wave detection with ground based atom interferometer arrays”, R.Geiger, Laboratoire LUTH, January 2016.
  28. First tests of atom interferometry in optical cavities for MIGA” , I. Riou, J. Gillot, A. Bertoldi, B. Canuel, P. Bouyer for the MIGA consortium, Congrès SFO 2015.
  29. The matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna : a new tool for underground geophysical studies” , P. Bouyer, AGU fall meeting, San Francisco, décembre 2015.
  30. Low Frequency Gravitational wave detection with ground based atom interferometer arrays,” R. Geiger, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, October 2015.
  31. MIGA (Matter wave laser interferometric gravitation antenna)”, R. Geiger, for the MIGA collaboration, Gravitation and Fundamental Physics Workshop of Paris Observatory, 6 July 2015.
  32. The Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA) project: new perspectives for high precision gravity measurements” , R. Geiger, for the MIGA collaboration, ICOLS (international conference on laser spectroscopy), Singapore 2015
  33. MIGA: Studying Gravity with an hybrid atom-optical interferometer” , B. Canuel for the MIGA consortium, 14th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, Rome, Italy, July 2015.
  34. Gravitational GW physics and geoscience with the MIGA instrument”, A. Bertoldi for the MIGA Consortium, LSBB Days Workshop, Rustrel, June 3-4, 2015.
  35. MIGA, an introduction” , B. Canuel for the MIGA consortium, Journées 2015 du Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit, Rustrel, France, May 2015.
  36. The MIGA experiment, towards sub-Hz GW detection with atom interferometry” , B. Canuel for the MIGA consortium, seminar at Leibniz Universität Hannover, nov. 2014, Germany.
  37. MIGA: combining laser and matter wave interferometry for new perspectives in fundamental physics and geosciences” , B. Canuel for the MIGA consortium, Colloque G2 (Géodésie-Géophysique), nov. 2014, Strasbourg, France.
  38. MIGA: an hybrid atom-optical interferometer for gravitational waves physics and geosciences”, B. Canuel for the MIGA consortium, SIGRAV conference, sept. 2014, Alessandria, Italy.
  39. MIGA: an hybrid atom-optical interferometer for fundamental physics and geosciences”, B. Canuel for the MIGA consortium, LAPHIA Symposium, sept. 2014, Bordeaux, France.
  40. Matter-wave laser Interferometer Gravitation Antenna (MIGA) experiment for fundamental physics and geoscience”, A. Bertoldi, B. Canuel, J. Gillot, I. Riou, S. Schmid, and P. Bouyer, ICAP 2014, july 2014, Washington DC, USA.
  41. Hybrid Atom-Optical Interferometry for Gravitational Wave Detection and Geophysics”, R.Geiger for the MIGA consortium, EGAS 46, July 2014, Lille, France.
  42. The matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA): new perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences, ” B. Canuel, A. Bertoldi, J. Gillot, I. Riou, S. Schmid, and P. Bouyer, i-DUST 2014 conference, May 2014, Apt, France.
  43. “Détection d’ondes gravitationnelles par des ondes de matière: l’expérience MIGA , J. Gillot, A. Bertoldi, B. Canuel, I. Riou, S. Schmid et P. Bouyer, Journées Scientifiques de l’Action Spécifique GRAM, 2-4 Avril 2014, Bordeaux, France.
  44. Towards Cavity Atomic Interferometry,” I. Riou, A. Bertoldi, B. Canuel, J. Gillot, S. Schmid, and P. Bouyer, YAO 2014 Conference, ICFO , Castelldefels (Barcelona), Spain.